Linux is an operating system. An operating system is software that
manages all of the hardware resources of computer with the other
software that are installed on the computer i.e. the operating system
manages the communication between your software and your hardware.
The OS is comprised of a number of pieces:
- The Bootloader: The software that manages the boot process of your computer. This is the process when the operating system get loaded into the memory So, The role of a boot loader is to load an operating system from a storage device.
- The kernel: This is the one piece of the whole that is actually called “Linux”. The kernel is the core of the system and manages the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices. The kernel is the “lowest” level of the OS.
- Daemons: These are background services (printing, sound, scheduling, etc.) that either start up during boot, or after you log into the desktop.
- The Shell: Shell – a command process that allows you to control the computer via commands typed into a text interface. With modern desktop Linux, there is no need to ever touch the command line.
- Graphical Server: This is the sub-system that displays the graphics on your monitor. It is commonly referred to as the X server or just “X”.
- Applications: Desktop environments do not offer the full array of apps. Just like Windows and Mac, Linux offers thousands upon thousands of high-quality software titles that can be easily found and installed. Most modern Linux distributions (more on this in a moment) include App Store-like tools that centralize and simplify application installation. For example: Ubuntu Linux has the Ubuntu Software Center (Figure 1) which allows you to quickly search among the thousands of apps and install them from one centralized location.
SOME POPOULAR DISTROS OF LINUX OS:-
- Arch Linux
- Cent OS
- Red hat
- Linux Mint
- Open SUSE
Benefits of Linux O.S:-
It is open-source, you don't have to pay for it. They can be freely downloaded and legally installed on as many computers as you want. Its installation is very simple and also you can access the source code with which you can also customize the distro.
It, is highly stable. It is very rare that you see a Linux OS getting hanged, and also whenever it happens, a faded screen appears which gets vanishes after some time.
Next, it is very less vulnerable to malware when compared to windows. So much that you don't need an antivirus in your OS..!! The reason for this is that whenever you want to run a program, you need to get administrator permission to make the program executable. This greatly reduces the chances of your system being attacked by malware. And also whenever there is any bug / virus, there are patches getting released often to rectify it.
CONSISTENT & LIGHTWEIGHT:
It is very consistent when compared to windows, mainly because it is not affected by viruses and bugs which can greatly reduce a system's performance over time. Also you don't need to Defragment your hard disk since it uses an Ext4 partition system.
COMPATIBILITY AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENT:
Linux OS's can literally breathe a new life into your old pc. Linux can smoothly run even on your old pc with low specs. It is a very lightweight so it can run smoothly even on low hardware and old hardware.
VARIETY OF OPTIONS:
Linux comes in all sizes and flavors, which offers a wide variety from which to choose the distro which will best suit your needs. Every O.S of Linux have both light and heavy versions so we can install it according to our system hardware configuration.
Linux provides a platform for hackers to find the holes in the system and do the penetration testing to find out the security beaches in the system. Kali Linux and Parrot O.S are such platforms.
This is the piece of the puzzle that the users actually interact with. There are many desktop environments to choose from (Unity, GNOME, Cinnamon, Enlightenment, KDE, XFCE, etc.).
Latest Distros of Linux O.S:-
· Penguin Linux
· Parrot O.S
· Elementary O.S
· Gentoo Linux
· Android O
· Fuchsia O.S