Amidst the uncontrollable emerging cases of Covid 19 in the beginning it was far from a miracle to develop a vaccine within the meantime. Most of the acclaimed scientists and organizations predicted that it will take a good 12-26 months to develop a vaccine and run trials, if successful it will take another 6 months to start the manufacturing of the vaccine on a global scale.
However, it was a modern science miracle that scientists were able to develop multiple variants of vaccines to fight against the covid19. The second concern in defeating the covid19 was the rollout of these vaccines in preserved conditions stored at -70 to -80 degrees Celsius and distributing them amongst the vulnerable. The first few people to receive the vaccine were each country's ministers, important figures, and healthcare sector employees including the several nurses working on the front line that were hired through the Temporary Nurse Staffing Agency.
The successful vaccine turnover is directly predicted to reflect the economic progress of the countries, the sooner the results, the better. Three of the countries that top the chart of successful turnover include Israel, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Bahrain who have managed to vaccinate a higher population than the rest of the world.
Israel and parts of the UAE are using the vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech, and Abu Dhabi and Bahrain are using the vaccine developed by China’s Sinopharm.
So what are the factors that have contributed to a successful vaccine turnover in these countries?
The first reason for successful administration is the population of these countries. Each of these countries has small territories and the population ranges between 1.5 and 9.3 million only. Moreover, the short distances in these countries are the key to preventing the spoilage of vaccines during transit. The second reason is the practice of a universal health care system which is helping the government vaccinate more people quickly according to their database. As compared to other countries in the world, here vaccines were approved quicker for administration. While the first country to develop a vaccine was the UK, however, Bahrain was the second to approve, followed up with Israel. Especially Israel encourages every citizen to be a part of one of the major health insurance funds, called HMOs.
Certainly, these countries can afford the vaccines as Israel secured six million doses for its citizens and the transportation trials began on the n9th of December 2020. While being stable enough to secure the vaccines, the citizens of these countries have a positive attitude towards the vaccine. Israel is one of the few to secure such a huge reserve claimed that the government is oblivious if they have overpaid for the vaccines, however, what matters most is that the economy regains its momentum.
UAE and Bahrain have fairly been successful in the vaccine overturn through using media support and dismissing any rumors that claimed the vaccine would be haram. The government consulted experts and muftis for a fatwa according to a hadith and Quran to encourage the Muslims. Israel used a similar approach for the orthodox jews.
Factors That Can Pose a Threat to the Progress:
One of the industries where scientist polarity is experienced at its peak is the pharmaceutical aspect of the healthcare sector. Scientists have been debating over several kinds of medicines and their effective doses for a long period of time concerning progressive or viral diseases. Similar to those matters, a sense of polarity is emerging regarding the dosage of Covid 19 as well, which if agreed on an administrative level can threaten the progressive of eliminating Covid19 globally.
Amid the skyrocketing covid19 virus, the manufacturing industry is concerned if delivering an enormous quantity of newly developed vaccines would be possible before the second wave of pandemic takes hold globally. As a controlling strategy for supply and demand, many countries are attempting to alternate the dose of vaccine to stretch the limited supplies. Although the scientists are split over the fact of whether the alternation is worth taking the risk.
The virologists of these countries are suggesting to reduce the dose by changing the vaccine schedules from those practiced in the clinical trials and were proved to be effective. The virologists here are emphasizing the fact that it’s the formula that has been proved to be affected rather than the scheduled jobs. While other claims it is best to stick to the proven doses.
One of the countries that already have implemented the supply and demand strategy is the United Kingdom. Despite the fact that a new Covid 19 variant case was reported in early December, the kingdom announced on 30th December that future doses of two coronavirus vaccine doses will administrative 12 weeks apart in contrast to the clinical trial in which the two vaccines (Pfizer of New York city and biotech of Mainz by Germany) were administered 3 weeks apart on the participants. The authorities are hoping that the delayed administration will free up dozens of more people and an increasing percentage of the population can be vaccinated during the surge.
Additionally, in January the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization suggested that there shouldn’t be a gap of more than six weeks between the first and second dose of the Pfizer vaccine after the evident results of successful trials.
Similarly, in the US with a population of 382.2 million and surging cases day by day, similar debates are talking about the doses. The US policy so far states that a reserve of vaccines is in progress for a guaranteed second shot of vaccine to receipts, however, the newly elected president Joe Biden has a different draft of policy in mind. While, other experts claim that a vaccine developed by Moderna of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland could be given at a half dose for effective results.
However, the expert’s opposition to the delayed jabs is based on the evidence gathered from the human trials. For efficiency, several vaccine formal needs to be administered through multiple jabs. Each jab is supposed to advance the process of the immune system against the virus.
The first jab administration triggers an immune response to certain proteins that are produced by the
bacteria and the virus and the follow-up jabs trigger the immune system memory cells into action to speed up the process of cell generation which usually takes weeks. After a few jabs, the immune system becomes capable of responding to the harmful proteins as well as their variants. The RNA-based vaccines by Pfizer and Moderna would lose their effectiveness in longer interval periods.
The long intervals even pose a threat of encouraging the emergence of viral variants that could be resistant to the developed vaccines.
Countries that are administering vaccines based on viral vectors such as Sputnik V, from Russia, and AstraZeneca of Cambridge, UK, and the University of Oxford, UK can make use of delayed doses. In these types of vaccines, a booster given too soon while the immune system initial response is raging is of no use because the memory cells wouldn’t be developed by that time. The coding of the covid119 proteins can take up to one to three months and in such circumstances, longer intervals showed better results.
While the expert's debate on the effective doses there also remains a good percentage of anti-vaxxers and conspiracy theory followers of about 20% who clearly refuse the jabs of vaccines.