Phases of Java Program
A simple Java Program normally undergoes
following five key steps:
Create and Edit
Let’s examine these phase (in detail) in the
context of the Java SE Development Kit (JDK).
1: Create and Edit
Phase 1, we create and edit a file with the help of an editor program, normally
known simply as an editor, or a text editor will also work. We type a Java
program (typically referred to as source code) using the editor, make
all necessary corrections and we save
this program/code on a secondary storage device, such as our hard drive. A file
name ending with the .java extension
indicates that the file contains Java source code.
editors widely used on Linux systems are vi and emacs. On Windows
platform, Notepad will suffice. For
organizations that develop substantial information systems, professionals
prefer integrated development
environments (IDEs), which are available from various major software
vendors. IDEs provide tools that makes the work easy for us by supporting the
software development process, including editors for writing and editing
programs and debuggers for debugging and
locating logic errors—errors that cause programs to execute incorrectly.
Popular Java based IDEs include Eclipse,InteliJ
2: Compiling a Java Program into Bytecodes
Phase 2, we use the command javac (the Java compiler) to compile a program. For
example, to compile a program called MindStick.java, we would type:
the command window of our system (i.e., the Command Prompt cmd in Windows, the shell
prompt in Linux or the Terminal application in Mac OS X). If this program
compiles, the compiler produces a .class file called MindStick.class that contains the compiled version of this program.
Java compiler translates Java source code into bytecodes that represent
the tasks to execute in the execution step (Phase 5). Bytecodes are executed on
Virtual Machine (JVM)—a crucial
part of the JDK which lays the foundation of the Java platform. A virtual machine
(VM) is a software application that simulates a computer system but hides the
underlying operating system (OS) and hardware from the programs that interact
with it. If the same VM is implemented on several computer platforms, same applications
that it executes can be used on all those platforms. The JVM is one of the most
widely used virtual machines. Even, Microsoft’s .NET uses similar
machine language, that is dependent on a particular computer hardware, these bytecodes
are platform independent—they do not depend on a particular hardware
that’s why, Java’s bytecodes are portable—without recompiling the source code,
the same bytecodes can be execute on any platform containing a JVM that understands
the version of Java in which the bytecodes were compiled. The JVM is invoked by
the java command. For instance, to execute a Java application called MindStick,
we would type the command
command window to invoke the JVM which
would then initiate the processes necessary to execute the application. This
begins Phase 3.
3: Loading a Program into Memory
Phase 3, the JVM places the program in memory to execute it—this is known as loading.
The JVM’s class loader takes the .class files containing the program’s
bytecodes and transfers them to primary memory. The class loader also loads any
of the .class files provided by Java that our program uses. The .class files can
be loaded from a disk on our system or over a network (e.g., our local college
or company network, or the Internet).Now this phase led us to verification phase, which we will
see in the next part.