For the backend, there are number of choices to a programmer, but it’s all depend upon preference of programming language or particular performance needs. A trend is observed in web development is business logic to move away from the backend, converting that layer into an APIs which is consumed by the frontend and mobile apps. But a full stack framework is still a valid choice for a lot of web apps as it is often simpler and faster to develop in.
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For running JS outside the browser, Node.js is the main method. This year, it came up with new releases, with performance increase and coverage added for the entire ES6 specification. Node has frameworks for creating APIs fast, desktop apps, servers and even robots, and a vast community building every kind of imaginable module. Some of the frameworks that you try to use are Koa, Express, Nodal, Next.
PHP being first and foremost web language. One can choose from a large number of web frameworks that uses PHP. It has an excellent documentation and features, it has an active community named Laravel. version 3 of Zend Framework was released, which was a notable mark for this business oriented framework for a great upgrade. Symfony also saw a lot of new releases this year, making it an even better choice as a full stack solution.
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For Ruby, the premier choice is the Rails framework. It released its Version 5.0 in 2016 that bring support for Web Sockets, API mode and more. Sinatra with version 2.0 is expected sometime in 2017 is also a good choice for small apps.
Python has its own full stack/minimal framework combination that are named Django and Flask. Django introduced full text with the release in August that search for Postgres and an overhauled middleware layer.
The Java ecosystem also has popular web frameworks to choose from. Play and Spark are two solid choices, and as a bonus they can be used with Scala as well.
For the enthusiasts there is another framework which is written in Elixir, Phoenix, and attempts to be a alternative to Rails with complete feature and superior performance. If you would like to learn Elixir as one of the languages in 2017, give a try to Phoenix.
Learn one of these: A full stack backend framework, a micro framework.
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