No, there is no way to do what you are looking for.
If you could tell us why you need this then may be some one can give you directions to an alternative.
If you really want to do it this way than you can use try/catch, something like this should work:
[self performSegueWithIdentifier:@"first" sender:self];
@catch (NSException *exception)
if ([exception.name isEqualToString:@"NSInvalidArgumentException"])
[self performSegueWithIdentifier:@"second" sender:self];