Felix Pickles

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Posted by  Felix Pickles
Java  Array 
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Need to concatenate two String arrays in Java.
void f(String[] first, String[] second) {
    String[] both = ???
What is the easiest way to do this?
  1. Mayank Tripathi


    Re: In java, how to concatenate two arrays

    Solution 1:

    Use Apache Commons Lang library
    String[] both = ArrayUtils.addAll(first, second);

    Solution 2:
    public Foo[] concat(Foo[] a, Foo[] b) {
       int aLen = a.length;
       int bLen = b.length;
       Foo[] c= new Foo[aLen+bLen];
       System.arraycopy(a, 0, c, 0, aLen);
       System.arraycopy(b, 0, c, aLen, bLen);
       return c;

    Here is a version that works with generics:

    public <T> T[] concatenate (T[] a, T[] b) {
        int aLen = a.length;
        int bLen = b.length;

        T[] c = (T[]) Array.newInstance(a.getClass().getComponentType(), aLen+bLen);
        System.arraycopy(a, 0, c, 0, aLen);
        System.arraycopy(b, 0, c, aLen, bLen);

        return c;
    Note like all generics it will not work with primitives but with Objects.

    Solution 3:
    use System.arraycopy() to ensure that copying large arrays is as fast as possible.

    For two arrays it looks like this:

    public static <T> T[] concat(T[] first, T[] second) {
      T[] result = Arrays.copyOf(first, first.length + second.length);
      System.arraycopy(second, 0, result, first.length, second.length);
      return result;
    And for a arbitrary number of arrays (>= 1) it looks like this:

    public static <T> T[] concatAll(T[] first, T[]... rest) {
      int totalLength = first.length;
      for (T[] array : rest) {
        totalLength += array.length;
      T[] result = Arrays.copyOf(first, totalLength);
      int offset = first.length;
      for (T[] array : rest) {
        System.arraycopy(array, 0, result, offset, array.length);
        offset += array.length;
      return result;

    Solution 4:
    in Java 8:

    String[] both = Stream.concat(,

    String[] both = Stream.of(a, b).flatMap(Stream::of)

    Solution 5:
    Or with the beloved Guava:
    String[] both = ObjectArrays.concat(first, second, String.class);

    Using the Java API:

    Solution 6:
    String[] f(String[] first, String[] second) {
        List<String> both = new ArrayList<String>(first.length + second.length);
        Collections.addAll(both, first);
        Collections.addAll(both, second);
        return both.toArray(new String[both.size()]);

    Solution 7:
    without System.arraycopy (not available in GWT client for example):

    static String[] concat(String[]... arrays) {
        int lengh = 0;
        for (String[] array : arrays) {
            lengh += array.length;
        String[] result = new String[lengh];
        int pos = 0;
        for (String[] array : arrays) {
            for (String element : array) {
                result[pos] = element;
        return result;

    Solution 8:
    The Functional Java library has an array wrapper class that equips arrays with handy methods like concatenation.

    import static;
    ...and then

    Array<String> both = array(first).append(array(second));
    To get the unwrapped array back out, call

    String[] s = both.array();

    Solution 9:
    ArrayList<String> both = new ArrayList(Arrays.asList(first));




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