Genomics Vaccines works as prevention of diseases, which can be caused by Viruses or Bacteria. Currently, the study has been done on animals successfully at the University of Texas.
Vaccines are the most effective way of reducing the impact of infectious disease on humans. Genomics has the potential to improve the process of vaccine development significantly. Genome sequencing helps to identify genetic patterns related to the virus of the disease and the genetic factors which improve immunity through successful vaccination. All these information’s helps the vaccine to target the specific area for the protective immune response. It helps to get a real picture by making a comparison between the infectious tissues with those that do not may provide additional insights.
Whereas, on the other side, the analysis of host diversity can explain effective immune responses and as well as the genetic basis for inappropriate or different response.
The standard vaccines which prevent the infectious disease are made up of killed or weakened pathogens or proteins from those microorganisms. In contrast to this, the new vaccine which represented a major change in the path of vaccination is consists of Genes. Genomic Vaccines offers various advantages, like fast manufacturing when a Virus (Zika or Ebola) suddenly become more deadly and widespread. Most vaccines work by introducing the immune system to recognize as an enemy.
Genomic Vaccines take the form of RNA or DNA which is encoded with desired proteins. While injecting the vaccine, the genes enter into the cell and destroy out the selected proteins. Manufacturing of proteins in cells cultures or eggs as compared to producing the genetic material is much simpler and cheap. In the future, the investigator could sequence the genome of the circulating strains and produce a better-matched vaccine quickly. Genomics also changed the passive immune transfer in which antibodies are introduced instead of antigens. Now, Scientists can identify people who are unaffected to the pathogen. On those people, scientist isolates the antibodies which provide the protection and design a gene sequence which enters into the person’s cell to produce those antibodies.
Basically, the genomic vaccine fools the immune system by thinking it has been infected by the real pathogen. Protection can be provided without risk of infection, and it could be more effective than traditional vaccines. The conventional vaccines have been able to remove Polio and prevent diseases like Measles, Mumps, and Rubella. They do carry some disadvantages as well with them. Because the weakened pathogen is injected and it generates the risk of developing the disease. Vaccines are the most cost-effective way of saving human life, but the only problem is, there is no vaccine for many major diseases in the world.
The Genomic Vaccines are quickly accepted during the experimentation phase is due to the various advantages it has over traditional vaccination. However, the Genomic Vaccines are not completely accepted as it does not prove to be satisfactory, where some concluded that genetic vaccines are not a good alternative for the traditional vaccines and will never replace them. Whereas, many supported that DNA Vaccine is more efficient than some established vaccines based on recombinant proteins, recombinant viruses, or both.
The Genomic Vaccines can be injected into the host by several routes and methods. Needle-injection into the muscle tissue or into the skin are the most common ways of injecting the vaccines. As well as, Spleen and a variety of Mucosal surfaces including those of the nose and gut have been targeted. As a large number of genetic vaccines studies have been done so far, many of the results are difficult to compare and inconsistent.
Myocytes play a secondary role in successful vaccination. Here, myocytes take up some of the plasmids injected into the muscle. This uptake was even reported as an enhanced when muscle fibers are recovering from tissue damage introduced by the injection of Bupivacaine or Cardiotoxin. The muscle tissue works as the immune activating component.