oriented programming uses different set of programming
language as compared to older procedural programming language(like Pascal, C,
etc).OOPS are based on the concept of “objects” , which contains the data,
in the form of field which is also known as attribute; and code, often known as methods.
Object oriented programming allows developers to group
similar tasks into classes. Object Oriented Programming is a programming style
in which all variables and functions are kept in a single class.
The first step in OOP is to identify the object, once
the object is identified than it is generalized as a class of object which
defines the kind of data it can contain and use logic to manipulate it.
revolve around these concepts:
8) Dynamic binding
9) Message passing
Anything in this real world is an object. Look around and you will find lots of objects like mobile,
car, laptop, etc. These objects have two things properties and behaviors.
If you can find properties and behaviors of object then it will be very easy
for you to understand object oriented programming.
Let’s take an example of car. Your car has property like
color, brand, etc and behavior it can go forward and backward.
A class is a blueprint of data. Class
represents all the properties and behavior of an abject. For example, before
building a house you will require a blueprint which defines the shape of the
house, how rooms to be made and how they should be connected all these things
are planned out, even though the house doesn’t exist. In programming we call
blueprint as class.
Rules for naming classes:
· A class name must begin with a letter
& can be followed by a sequence of letters (A-Z), underscore (_), and
· Special Characters such as? ( ) @ # $ % $
cannot be used in the class name.
· A class name should not be same as reserved
Polymorphism is one of the most important concepts in
OOP. The word polymorphism derived from two Latin words poly (means many)and morphos (means forms). When one task is performed in
different ways or reuse the single code multiple times is known as polymorphism. Polymorphism is termed as the third pillar of OOP without it programming is incomplete.
For example: integers and floats are implicitly polymorphism as using them you can perform add, subtract, multiply, etc.
Polymorphism are of two types runtime polymorphism (also known as overriding) and compile time polymorphism (also known as overloading).
Creating a new class from existing class is called inheritance.
When some class requires a same properties and methods of an existing class,
then instead of recreating those members you can inherit the existing class,
this is known as inheritance. So, inheritance is the process in which object of
one class inherits the members of another class.
During inheritance the class which is inherited is called
class or a base class and the new class is known as child class or derived
class. Concept of the inheritance is similar to inheritance in real
world. For example: child inherits
the characteristics of their parent.
a process of binding the data members (properties and variables) and member
functions (methods) into a single unit. It keeps the data and the code safe
from external interference. With the help of encapsulation the classes can be
separated and prevented coupling with each other.
Using encapsulation, a class can change the internal
implementation without changing the functionality of the program.
For example: Power steering of a
car is a complex system and contains lots of components internally. But for the
external world the complexity is hidden. Moreover, steering unit is independent
and does not affect the functionality of any other mechanism.
is a process where relevant data is shown and complexity is hidden in order to
reduce complexity and increase efficiency.
“Abstraction means working with something we
know how to use without knowing how it works internally.”
example: When you switch on the television set you know how to
use it but you don’t need to know how it works internally.
Abstraction and encapsulation are
interrelated: Abstraction focuses on the behavior of an object whereas
encapsulation focuses on the implementation.
The principal goal of object oriented programming is to
make the code reuse whenever possible. Reusability is important because of
the two reasons: First, it enables developers to be more efficient because using
the same code can be developed once and used wherever possible. Second, reliability
can be achieved by reusability. The development of new code involves additional
costs, time and money for testing, verification and validation.
binding is also known as late binding or dispatch
binding or runtime binding. In late binding the method, compiler does not
know about the kind of object or the type of object or what properties or
method are contained in object. The properties and variables are identified and
checked only at the run time.
passing is a type of communication in which one
object sends data to another object to invoke methods .Message passing can be synchronous
In synchronous message passing sender and receiver waits for each other while
transferring data or information. In asynchronous message passing sender and
receiver do not wait for the each other while transferring the information.
Oriented Programming in PHP
Object Oriented Programming is a style that enables
developers to group similar task into a single class. With PHP, OOP started to
become more feasible. PHP is a server side scripting language and a
powerful tool for making dynamic web pages. It is a language used for building
complex application .By utilizing the full power of object oriented programming
language you can reduce the time that you are spending in coding and use it to
build better websites.
These below following topics used in php programming
Class and Object
this part you will learn about the basics of class and object. How to
implement the class and object in PHP
Magic function in PHP
methods are starts with prefix_ like _get, _tostring, etc. You will learn how
to use these methods.
Visibility in PHP
will learn about the access modifier of OOP in PHP (public, protected and
Static method in PHP
this section, you will learn how to use static method and properties.
to inherit the properties and methods of parent class.
Abstract Class and Interface
part, it is explained how to use abstract class and when to use. Also the
basic concept of interface how behavior of one class passes to another class.
Overloading and Overriding
section covers how to implement overloading and overriding.
Object Cloning in PHP
this part you will learn how to clone the class. How to implement the object
of clone class.
this part we will explore the characteristics of method chaining
Type Hinting in PHP
this section you will learn how to implement type hinting.