Operators are used to build expressions. SQL operators are very similar to mathematical operators. SQLite supports unary and binary operators. Binary operators work with two operands, unary work with one. An operator may have one or two operands. An operand is one of the inputs (arguments) of an operator.
SQLite supports five broad categories of operators:
· Arithmetic operators
· Comparison operators
· Logical operators
· Bitwise operators
SQLite Arithmetic Operators:
Assume variable a holds 20 and variable b holds 40, then:
Operator |
Description |
Example |
+ |
Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator |
a + b will give 60 |
- |
Subtraction - Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand |
a - b will give -20 |
* |
Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator |
a * b will give 800 |
/ |
Division - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand |
b / a will give 2 |
% |
Modulus - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder |
b % a will give 0 |
SQLite Comparison Operators:
Assume variable a holds 20 and variable b holds 40, then:
Operator |
Description |
Example |
== |
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a == b) is not true. |
= |
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a = b) is not true. |
!= |
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. |
(a != b) is true. |
<> |
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. |
(a <> b) is true. |
> |
Checks if the values of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a > b) is not true. |
< |
Checks if the values of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a < b) is true. |
>= |
Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a >= b) is not true. |
<= |
Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a <= b) is true. |
!< |
Checks if the value of left operand is not less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a !< b) is false. |
!> |
Checks if the value of left operand is not greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. |
(a !> b) is true. |
SQLite Logical Operators:
Here is a list of all the logical operators available in SQLite.
Operator |
Description |
AND |
The AND operator allows the existence of multiple conditions in an SQL statement's WHERE clause. |
BETWEEN |
The BETWEEN operator is used to search for values that are within a set of values, given the minimum value and the maximum value. |
EXISTS |
The EXISTS operator is used to search for the presence of a row in a specified table that meets certain criteria. |
IN |
The IN operator is used to compare a value to a list of literal values that have been specified. |
NOT IN |
The negation of IN operator which is used to compare a value to a list of literal values that have been specified. |
LIKE |
The LIKE operator is used to compare a value to similar values using wildcard operators. |
GLOB |
The GLOB operator is used to compare a value to similar values using wildcard operators. Also, GLOB is case sensitive, unlike LIKE. |
NOT |
The NOT operator reverses the meaning of the logical operator with which it is used. Eg. NOT EXISTS, NOT BETWEEN, NOT IN, etc. This is negate operator. |
OR |
The OR operator is used to combine multiple conditions in an SQL statement's WHERE clause. |
IS NULL |
The NULL operator is used to compare a value with a NULL value. |
IS |
The IS operator work like = |
IS NOT |
The IS operator work like != |
|| |
Adds two different strings and make new one. |
UNIQUE |
The UNIQUE operator searches every row of a specified table for uniqueness (no duplicates). |
SQLite Bitwise Operators:
Decimal numbers are natural to humans. Binary numbers are native to computers. Binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal symbols are only notations of the same number. Bitwise operators work with bits of a binary number. We have binary logical operators and shift operators.
Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth table for & and | is as follows:
p |
q |
p & q |
p | q |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
Assume if A = 60; and B = 13; now in binary format, they will be as follows:
A = 0011 1100
B = 0000 1101
-----------------
A&B = 0000 1100
A|B = 0011 1101
~A = 1100 0011
The Bitwise operators supported by SQLite language are listed in the following table. Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13, then:
Show Examples
Operator |
Description |
Example |
& |
Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. |
(A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100 |
| |
Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. |
(A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101 |
~ |
Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. |
(~A ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number. |
<< |
Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. |
A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000 |
>> |
Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. |
A >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111 |
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