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Arrays and its limitations


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Basically, array is a collection of similar type of elements that have contiguous memory location.
JAVA ARRAY  is an object the contains elements of similar data type. It is a data structure where we store similar elements. We can store only fixed set of elements in a java array.

Array in java is index based, first element of the array is stored at 0 index.

java array

Advantage of Java Array:

Code Optimization: It makes the code optimized, we can retrieve or sort the data easily.

Random access: We can get any data located at any index position.

Disadvantage of Java Array:

Size Limit: We can store only fixed size of elements in the array. It doesn't grow its size at runtime. To solve this problem, collection framework is used in java.

Types of Array in Java

Single Dimensional Array

Multidimensional Array

Single Dimensional Array in java

Syntax to Declare an Array in java

  1. dataType[] arr; (or)  
  2. dataType []arr; (or)  
  3. dataType arr[];  

Instantiation of an Array in java

  1. arrayRefVar=new datatype[size];  

Example of single dimensional java array

 we are going to declare, instantiate, initialize and traverse an array.

  1. class Testarray{  
  2. public static void main(String args[]){  
  3.   
  4. int a[]=new int[5];//declaration and instantiation  
  5. a[0]=10;//initialization  
  6. a[1]=20;  
  7. a[2]=70;  
  8. a[3]=40;  
  9. a[4]=50;  
  10.   
  11. //printing array  
  12. for(int i=0;i<a.length;i++)//length is the property of array  
  13. System.out.println(a[i]);  
  14.   
  15. }} 
Output: 10
       20
       70
       40
       50
      

Declaration, Instantiation and Initialization of Java Array

We can declare, instantiate and initialize the java array together by:

  1. int a[]={33,3,4,5};//declaration, instantiation and initialization  

Let's see the simple example to print this array.

  1. class Testarray1{  
  2. public static void main(String args[]){  
  3.   
  4. int a[]={33,3,4,5};//declaration, instantiation and initialization  
  5.   
  6. //printing array  
  7. for(int i=0;i<a.length;i++)//length is the property of array  
  8. System.out.println(a[i]);  
  9.   
  10. }}  

Output:33
       3
       4
       5
   

Passing Array to method in java

We can pass the java array to method so that we can reuse the same logic on any array.

Let's see the simple example to get minimum number of an array using method.

  1. class Testarray2{  
  2. static void min(int arr[]){  
  3. int min=arr[0];  
  4. for(int i=1;i<arr.length;i++)  
  5.  if(min>arr[i])  
  6.   min=arr[i];  
  7.   
  8. System.out.println(min);  
  9. }  
  10.   
  11. public static void main(String args[]){  
  12.   
  13. int a[]={33,3,4,5};  
  14. min(a);//passing array to method  
  15.   
  16. }}  

Output:3

Multidimensional array in java

In such case, data is stored in row and column based index (also known as matrix form).

Syntax to Declare Multidimensional Array in java

  1. dataType[][] arrayRefVar; (or)  
  2. dataType [][]arrayRefVar; (or)  
  3. dataType arrayRefVar[][]; (or)  
  4. dataType []arrayRefVar[];   

Example to instantiate Multidimensional Array in java

  1. int[][] arr=new int[3][3];//3 row and 3 column  

Example to initialize Multidimensional Array in java

  1. arr[0][0]=1;  
  2. arr[0][1]=2;  
  3. arr[0][2]=3;  
  4. arr[1][0]=4;  
  5. arr[1][1]=5;  
  6. arr[1][2]=6;  
  7. arr[2][0]=7;  
  8. arr[2][1]=8;  
  9. arr[2][2]=9;  

Example of Multidimensional java array

Let's see the simple example to declare, instantiate, initialize and print the 2 Dimensional array.

  1. class Testarray3{  
  2. public static void main(String args[]){  
  3.   
  4. //declaring and initializing 2D array  
  5. int arr[][]={{1,2,3},{2,4,5},{4,4,5}};  
  6.   
  7. //printing 2D array  
  8. for(int i=0;i<3;i++){  
  9.  for(int j=0;j<3;j++){  
  10.    System.out.print(arr[i][j]+" ");  
  11.  }  
  12.  System.out.println();  
  13. }  
  14.   
  15. }}  

Output:1 2 3
       2 4 5
       4 4 5

What is the class name of java array?

In java, array is an object. For array object, an proxy class is created whose name can be obtained by getClass().getName() method on the object.

  1. class Testarray4{  
  2. public static void main(String args[]){  
  3.   
  4. int arr[]={4,4,5};  
  5.   
  6. Class c=arr.getClass();  
  7. String name=c.getName();  
  8.   
  9. System.out.println(name);  
  10.   
  11. }}  

Output:I

Copying a java array

We can copy an array to another by the arraycopy method of System class.

Syntax of arraycopy method

  1. public static void arraycopy(  
  2. Object src, int srcPos,Object dest, int destPos, int length  
  3. )  

Example of arraycopy method

  1. class TestArrayCopyDemo {  
  2.     public static void main(String[] args) {  
  3.         char[] copyFrom = { 'd''e''c''a''f''f''e',  
  4.                 'i''n''a''t''e''d' };  
  5.         char[] copyTo = new char[7];  
  6.   
  7.         System.arraycopy(copyFrom, 2, copyTo, 07);  
  8.         System.out.println(new String(copyTo));  
  9.     }  
  10. }  

Output:caffein

Addition of two matrices in java

Let's see a simple example that adds two matrices.

  1. class Testarray5{  
  2. public static void main(String args[]){  
  3. //creating two matrices  
  4. int a[][]={{1,3,4},{3,4,5}};  
  5. int b[][]={{1,3,4},{3,4,5}};  
  6.   
  7. //creating another matrix to store the sum of two matrices  
  8. int c[][]=new int[2][3];  
  9.   
  10. //adding and printing addition of 2 matrices  
  11. for(int i=0;i<2;i++){  
  12. for(int j=0;j<3;j++){  
  13. c[i][j]=a[i][j]+b[i][j];  
  14. System.out.print(c[i][j]+" ");  
  15. }  
  16. System.out.println();//new line  
  17. }  
  18.   
  19. }}  
Output:2 6 8
       6 8 10

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